Popular myth is Sindhu culture was destroyed at the hands of nomadic Aryan invader tribes, those entered Indian subcontinent from Central Asia (or north pole), one after other. But as there is not a single proof of any violent battle in or around the remnants of sites those have been excavated, the theory had to be abandoned. It certainly depressed Aryanists. Even Rigveda itself, which is so-called most ancient religious text, does not approve this theory. Tilak tried to prove through some poetic verses of Rugveda that home of Aryans was in Arctic region, but this theory too has been failed on the grounds of physical proofs. Myth of Aryans is owed to Herman Yakobi and Maxmuller. But both were linguists and not anthropologists. Their principle thought was such a developed and mature language like “sanskrut” cannot have Indian origin. Hence the people those originated this language must have been foreigners.
Anyway, this is not the principle object of writing this article. However, when such theories were being proposed and supported by likes of Tilak, remains of Sindhu culture were yet to see sunlight. When one after other Sindhu sites (First excavations were in the terrains of Sindhu river, hence Sindhu culture…but the spread of the sites is in 5.50 lakh sq. km’s., ranging from Sindhu river, Hariyana, Punjab, Rajasthan to Maharashtra…this way it was and is real Indian culture).
Now there is no dispute that oldest settlement of Sindhu culture is as old as 3500 BC. If considered Rigvedic timeline, it doesn’t go back before 2500 BC. Most importantly Rugveda is composed during the era of King Sudasa and his successors by almost 350 Rishis of ten different clans. The composing of Rigveda is considered to be from 2500 BC till 1750 BC.
And last remnants of Sindhu sites (not culture, as per my say AS it was never destroyed completely.) dates back to same time, i.e. 1750 BC.
Is it co-incidence?
WHO WERE VAIDIKS?
If the Aryans were not invaders, didn’t attack, defeated and destroyed Sindhu settlements, then who were they, and what kind of relationship did they have with Sindhu people?
Scholars like Dr. M. K. Dhavalikar have now started to propose that in fact vaidik Aryans were founders of Sindhu culture. (see…”Aryanchya Shodhat by Dr. M.K. Dhavalikar.). Also it is proposed by them that the fireplaces those are found in excavations in Sindhu sites are nothing but the “Yadnyavedi’s”.
If accepted their propositions, the main question arises that what was the religion of Sindhu people before rise of Rigveda and Yadnyik rituals? The timeline of Rugveda doesn’t go back beyond 2500BC, no matter how stretched. And if Sindhu culture dates back to 3500 BC, it gives scope to many questions.
Does Rigveda support this theory?
Rigveda admits that their enemies used to live in forts and fortified cities.
Rigveda admits that vaidik people used to live in huts and small villages called “Vish”.
Rigveda admits that vaidik people were herdsmen and not pro-agriculturists.
Being herdsmen, fire and animal-oriented sacrifice culture was normal to them.
Through their own lifestyle they developed their own religion.
This religion was originated during period of King Sudasa, and as his clan lost its supremacy in the course of time Rugvedic Rishi’s seem to pray and beg before Pani’s (Those were sudras for them) for donations (See (Anukramani…Rigveda)
To Rigvedik Rishis, all enemies of Sudasa clan are “Anarya’s”, including Ikshwaku (in this clan Rama took birth), Yadu (In this clan Krishna took birth), Matsya, Bhalanas, Anu, etc.
Rigvedik Rishis all the time pray that the fortified cities of their enemy be destroyed at the hands of Lord Indra.
They have been praying for the growth of their cattle…not agriculture.
AND SINDHU CULTURE
The remnants of the ancient sites prove that Sindhu people used to live in well organized/planned cities.
They were mainly agriculturists.
They used to cultivate farmlands by using water of Sindhu river having an artificial bunds on the water flows.
Sindhu people also were traders/sea farers and used to trade with foreign lands crossing sea through ships. (The artifacts of Indus civilization found in Mesopotemia etc. are the proofs.)
Sindhu people principally were idol worshippers, chiefly Lord Shiva, Vrushabha, unicorn and Mother Goddesses.
Yoga was invented by Sindhu people as various seals those have been found prove this fact.
I have given here quite a few points to describe there was principally great difference in both the cultures. Vaidik thought of civilization clearly is against civilized culture.
Sindhu culture was advanced in every way as compared to Vaidik culture. Vaidik culture was principally of herdsman culture whereas Sindhu culture was agriculturist.
Hence the claims that vaidik (or Aryans) destroyed Sindhu culture or they were creators of Sindhu culture can be refuted easily.
Then question arises why vaidik culture ended by 1750 BC and why we find last remains of Sindhu culture (settlements) in the same period of time?
MYTH OF SARASVATI
Here I would like to draw your attention towards sarasvati river which was highly revered river by Vaidik rishis. There have been hundreds of prayers in this rivers praise, unlike Sindhu or other. This is because vaidik people were settled in the planes of saraswati river. The myth that this river dried up near Vinshan, has now got supportive physical proofs. Wakankar and few others have proved that this was not a mythical river; it really did exist in ancient times. In 1750 BC (approx) because of earthquakes saraswati had to change the course and as repeated earthquakes river dried up as there remained no source of water. (Hakra, a dried up river now is identified with Saraswati.)
Considering this geological fact, which dried up a river, also must have made sever impact on the Sindhu cities those were all around epicenter of earth quake i.e. Saraswati River. Last remains of Sindhu culture are of approximately of same time period, i.e. 1750 BC.
Hence people, no matter whether Vaidik or Sindhu, were forced to abandon the cities and build new settlements elsewhere or in nearby safe regions. Since vaidiks used to live in huts, no remains of vaidik culture has been ever found.
Was Sindhu culture entirely destroyed?
No culture ever dies, no matter whatsoever calamities might befall. We can trace out remains of Sindhu culture even today:
1. The same type of ships and bullock carts are still in use in Sindhu region today those were found in excavations in the form of toy’s.
2. Yoga is still in the practice and is spreading, and first ever Yogic postures are found on abundant seals in Sindhu culture.
3. Thousands of “Vrushabh” (Bull) seals justify the tradition still continues.
4. The tree like Pimpal can be seen on various seals, and the same tree is considered Holy even today.
5. “saptmatruka” (may be symbol of week days.) can be seen on few seals.
6. Sindhu people were idol worshippers and we too even today are idol worshippers.
There can be many examples those we follw even today that can be related with faiths and style of Sindhu people.
What is lost of Sindhu people?
We have lost a strong legacy of Sindhu people, our forefathers which I would like to list as under:
1. We lost the great tradition of town planning.
2. We lost the great legacy of a trading community, adventure and commerce that was needed for constant prosperity.
3. We lost the tradition of scientific advance that had began by Sindhu people. The first dry-dock was built by Sindhu people at Lothal.
4. We lost the literacy of Sindhu people…Sindhu people had script and could write and it appears that people were educated.
WHAT VAIDIKS COULD PRESERVE AND WHAT THEY LOST?
Here I am not attempting to compare both the cultures those had independent values and lifestyle. But vaidik culture too didn’t vanish. They too have preserved their legacy to some extent.
1. By oral tradition they preserved Veda’s. (They didn’t know art of writing as Sindhu people did.)
2. Keeping ancient memories in mind they migrated almost all over India from the earth-quake stricken Saraswati region.
3. They preserved their Yadnyk ritualistic religion and spread in among others for almost 2000 years (till 2nd century AD.) But gradually it ended up.
4. Vaidiks wrote Purana’s, gave new dimensions, suitable to them, by way of adulteration to Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purana’s, that helped them inevitably in proving their own supremacy.
5. With smrutis, they established their supremacy over other people.
WHAT THEY LOST?
1. They lost their very religion and rituals in the course of time.
2. They could not prove supremacy of their Gods like Indra, Mitra, varuna etc. whom none worships today.
3. They lost their principle business of animal farming and entered in other businesses.
4. They lost their constant zeal of fighting against idol worshippers and had to become priests of idol worshipping classes.
Anyway, we have seen that though few cities of Sindhu people were destroyed because of natural calamities, flow of the culture didn’t stop there. It is ever flowing energetic force and we need to catch up with what we have lost in the course of the time.
To see images of Sindhu culture pls visit http://www.harappa.com/har/har0.html